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1. Assignment problem using Hungarian method example ( Enter your problem )

1. Algorithm & Example-1

Algorithm
 Hungarian Method Steps (Rule) Step-1: If number of rows is not equal to number of columns, then add dummy rows or columns with cost 0, to make it a square matrix. Step-2: a. Identify the minimum element in each row and subtract it from each element of that row. b. Identify the minimum element in each column and subtract it from every element of that column. Step-3: Make assignment in the opporunity cost table a. Identify rows with exactly one unmarked 0. Make an assignmment to this single 0 by make a square (  ) around it and cross off all other 0 in the same column. b. Identify columns with exactly one unmarked 0. Make an assignmment to this single 0 by make a square (  ) around it and cross off all other 0 in the same rows. c. If a row and/or column has two or more unmarked 0 and one cannot be chosen by inspection, then choose the cell arbitarily. d. Continue this process until all 0 in rows/columns are either assigned or cross off( ). Step-4: (a) If the number of assigned cells = the number of rows, then an optimal assignment is found and In case you have chosen a 0 cell arbitrarily, then there may be an alternate optimal solution exists. (b) If optimal solution is not optimal, then goto Step-5. Step-5: Draw a set of horizontal and vertical lines to cover all the 0 a. Tick(✓) mark all the rows in which no assigned 0. b. Examine Tick(✓) marked rows, If any 0 cell occurs in that row, then tick(✓) mark that column. c. Examine Tick(✓) marked columns, If any assigned 0 exists in that columns, then tick(✓) mark that row. d. Repeat this process until no more rows or columns can be marked. e. Draw a straight line for each unmarked rows and marked columns. f. If the number of lines is equal to the number of rows then the current solution is the optimal, otherwise goto step-6 Step-6: Develop the new revised opportunity cost table a. Select the minimum element, say k, from the cells not covered by any line, b. Subtract k from each element not covered by a line. c. Add k to each intersection element of two lines. Step-7: Repeat stpes 3 to 6 until an optimal solution is arrived.

Example-1
Find Solution of Assignment problem using Hungarian method (MIN case)
 Work\Job I II III IV V A 10 5 13 15 16 B 3 9 18 13 6 C 10 7 2 2 2 D 7 11 9 7 12 E 7 9 10 4 12

Solution:
The number of rows = 5 and columns = 5
 I II III IV V A 10 5 13 15 16 B 3 9 18 13 6 C 10 7 2 2 2 D 7 11 9 7 12 E 7 9 10 4 12

Here given problem is balanced.

Step-1: Find out the each row minimum element and subtract it from that row
 I II III IV V A 5 5=10-5 0 0=5-5 8 8=13-5 10 10=15-5 11 11=16-5 (-5) Minimum element of 1^(st) row B 0 0=3-3 6 6=9-3 15 15=18-3 10 10=13-3 3 3=6-3 (-3) Minimum element of 2^(nd) row C 8 8=10-2 5 5=7-2 0 0=2-2 0 0=2-2 0 0=2-2 (-2) Minimum element of 3^(rd) row D 0 0=7-7 4 4=11-7 2 2=9-7 0 0=7-7 5 5=12-7 (-7) Minimum element of 4^(th) row E 3 3=7-4 5 5=9-4 6 6=10-4 0 0=4-4 8 8=12-4 (-4) Minimum element of 5^(th) row

Step-2: Find out the each column minimum element and subtract it from that column.
 I II III IV V A 5 5=5-0 0 0=0-0 8 8=8-0 10 10=10-0 11 11=11-0 B 0 0=0-0 6 6=6-0 15 15=15-0 10 10=10-0 3 3=3-0 C 8 8=8-0 5 5=5-0 0 0=0-0 0 0=0-0 0 0=0-0 D 0 0=0-0 4 4=4-0 2 2=2-0 0 0=0-0 5 5=5-0 E 3 3=3-0 5 5=5-0 6 6=6-0 0 0=0-0 8 8=8-0 (-0) Minimum element of 1^(st) column (-0) Minimum element of 2^(nd) column (-0) Minimum element of 3^(rd) column (-0) Minimum element of 4^(th) column (-0) Minimum element of 5^(th) column

Step-3: Make assignment in the opporunity cost table

a. Identify rows with exactly one unmarked 0. Make an assignmment to this single 0 by make a square (  ) around it and cross off all other 0 in the same column.

b. Identify columns with exactly one unmarked 0. Make an assignmment to this single 0 by make a square (  ) around it and cross off all other 0 in the same rows.

c. If a row and/or column has two or more unmarked 0 and one cannot be chosen by inspection, then choose the cell arbitarily.

d. Continue this process until all 0 in rows/columns are either assigned or cross off( ).

Step-3: Make assignment in the opporunity cost table
(1) Rowwise cell (A,II) is assigned

(2) Rowwise cell (B,I) is assigned, so columnwise cell (D,I) crossed off.

(3) Rowwise cell (D,IV) is assigned, so columnwise cell (C,IV),(E,IV) crossed off.

(4) Columnwise cell (C,III) is assigned, so rowwise cell (C,V) crossed off.

Rowwise & columnwise assignment shown in table
 I II III IV V A 5  (1) Rowwise cell (A,II) is assigned 8 10 11 B  (2) Rowwise cell (B,I) is assigned so columnwise cell (D,I) crossed off. 6 15 10 3 C 8 5  (4) Columnwise cell (C,III) is assigned so rowwise cell (C,V) crossed off. 0 Columnwise (C,IV) crossed off because(3) Rowwise cell (D,IV) is assigned 0 Rowwise (C,V) crossed off because(4) Columnwise cell (C,III) is assigned D 0 Columnwise (D,I) crossed off because(2) Rowwise cell (B,I) is assigned 4 2  (3) Rowwise cell (D,IV) is assigned so columnwise cell (C,IV),(E,IV) crossed off. 5 E 3 5 6 0 Columnwise (E,IV) crossed off because(3) Rowwise cell (D,IV) is assigned 8

Step-4: Number of assignments = 4, number of rows = 5
Which is not equal, so solution is not optimal.

Step-5: Draw a set of horizontal and vertical lines to cover all the 0

a. Tick(✓) mark all the rows in which no assigned 0.

b. Examine Tick(✓) marked rows, If any 0 cell occurs in that row, then tick(✓) mark that column.

c. Examine Tick(✓) marked columns, If any assigned 0 exists in that columns, then tick(✓) mark that row.

d. Repeat this process until no more rows or columns can be marked.

e. Draw a straight line for each unmarked rows and marked columns.

f. If the number of lines is equal to the number of rows then the current solution is the optimal, otherwise goto step-6

Step-5: Cover the 0 with minimum number of lines
(1) Mark(✓) row E since it has no assignment

(2) Mark(✓) column IV since row E has 0 in this column

(3) Mark(✓) row D since column IV has an assignment in this row D.

(4) Mark(✓) column I since row D has 0 in this column

(5) Mark(✓) row B since column I has an assignment in this row B.

(6) Since no other rows or columns can be marked, therefore draw straight lines through the unmarked rows A,C and marked columns I,IV

Tick mark not allocated rows and allocated columns
 I II III IV V A 5  8 10 11 B  6 15 10 3 ✓(5) (5) Mark(✓) row B since column I has an assignment in this row B. C 8 5  0 0 D 0 4 2  5 ✓(3) (3) Mark(✓) row D since column IV has an assignment in this row D. E 3 5 6 0 8 ✓(1) (1) Mark(✓) row E since it has no assignment ✓(4) (4) Mark(✓) column I since row D has 0 in this column ✓(2) (2) Mark(✓) column IV since row E has 0 in this column

Step-6: Develop the new revised opportunity cost table

a. Select the minimum element, say k, from the cells not covered by any line,

b. Subtract k from each element not covered by a line.

c. Add k to each intersection element of two lines.

Step-6: Develop the new revised table by selecting the smallest element, among the cells not covered by any line (say k = 2)
Subtract k = 2 from every element in the cell not covered by a line.
Add k = 2 to every elment in the intersection cell of two lines.

 I II III IV V A 7 7=5+2intersection cell of two lines 0 cell covered by a line 8 cell covered by a line 12 12=10+2intersection cell of two lines 11 cell covered by a line B 0 cell covered by a line 4 4=6-2cell not covered by a line 13 13=15-2cell not covered by a line 10 cell covered by a line 1 1=3-2cell not covered by a line C 10 10=8+2intersection cell of two lines 5 cell covered by a line 0 cell covered by a line 2 2=0+2intersection cell of two lines 0 cell covered by a line D 0 cell covered by a line 2 2=4-2cell not covered by a line 0 0=2-2cell not covered by a line 0 cell covered by a line 3 3=5-2cell not covered by a line E 3 cell covered by a line 3 3=5-2cell not covered by a line 4 4=6-2cell not covered by a line 0 cell covered by a line 6 6=8-2cell not covered by a line

Repeat stpes 3 to 6 until an optimal solution is obtained.

Step-3: Make assignment in the opporunity cost table
(1) Rowwise cell (A,II) is assigned

(2) Rowwise cell (B,I) is assigned, so columnwise cell (D,I) crossed off.

(3) Rowwise cell (E,IV) is assigned, so columnwise cell (D,IV) crossed off.

(4) Columnwise cell (C,V) is assigned, so rowwise cell (C,III) crossed off.

(5) Rowwise cell (D,III) is assigned

Rowwise & columnwise assignment shown in table
 I II III IV V A 7  (1) Rowwise cell (A,II) is assigned 8 12 11 B  (2) Rowwise cell (B,I) is assigned so columnwise cell (D,I) crossed off. 4 13 10 1 C 10 5 0 Rowwise (C,III) crossed off because(4) Columnwise cell (C,V) is assigned 2  (4) Columnwise cell (C,V) is assigned so rowwise cell (C,III) crossed off. D 0 Columnwise (D,I) crossed off because(2) Rowwise cell (B,I) is assigned 2  (5) Rowwise cell (D,III) is assigned 0 Columnwise (D,IV) crossed off because(3) Rowwise cell (E,IV) is assigned 3 E 3 3 4  (3) Rowwise cell (E,IV) is assigned so columnwise cell (D,IV) crossed off. 6

Step-4: Number of assignments = 5, number of rows = 5
Which is equal, so solution is optimal

Optimal assignments are
 I II III IV V A 7 Original cost 10  Original cost 5 8 Original cost 13 12 Original cost 15 11 Original cost 16 B  Original cost 3 4 Original cost 9 13 Original cost 18 10 Original cost 13 1 Original cost 6 C 10 Original cost 10 5 Original cost 7 0 Original cost 2 2 Original cost 2  Original cost 2 D 0 Original cost 7 2 Original cost 11  Original cost 9 0 Original cost 7 3 Original cost 12 E 3 Original cost 7 3 Original cost 9 4 Original cost 10  Original cost 4 6 Original cost 12

Optimal solution is
 Work Job Cost A II 5 B I 3 C V 2 D III 9 E IV 4 Total 23

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